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What to Do About a Warrant In Debt?

by Bob Weed on May 23, 2012

When the judge asks, Do you owe this money? Answer, "Your Honor, I want a trial"

Urgent! Did You Get a Warrant in Debt from a Virginia Court?


Here’s what you need to know.

A warrant in debt is what they call it in Virginia when a creditor is suing you in General District Court. Warrant makes it sound a little worse than it is, but it is bad enough. It is not a criminal law problem—you can’t go to jail; but they are trying to make you pay.

A creditor wants you to pay—and if nothing else works, they want to make you pay with a garnishment. (A garnishment is a court order to your bank or your payroll office to send part of your money to the court instead of you.)

(Under the law, they can only garnish 25% of your paycheck; but they will garnish the entire bank account.)

In order to get a garnishment, a creditor first has to take you to court and win. Taking you to court starts with sending you court papers. Those court papers are the “warrant in debt.”

(They have to take you to court in Virginia if you live in Virginia. You should keep that in mind when you get threat letters from lawyers. A lawyer in Atlanta GA probably doesn’t come to Virginia to take people to court. A lawyer in Rockville MD probably does. A lawyer in Richmond VA does almost for sure.)

The way you get served with a warrant in debt is for the sheriff to come around and tape it to your door. The creditor will also mail you a copy. The warrant in debt will have a return date which is your first court date. You can find that return date in the upper right hand corner.


If you admit you owe the money or don’t show up on your first warrant in debt court date, they get a judgment. Ten days after the judgment, then they can get the garnishment.

(You have ten days to note your appeal; but to appeal you have to pay into court the amount of the judgment—that’s probably impossible for you to do.)

Around here, most people don’t show up for their court date, so they automatically plead guilty to owing the debt. Ignoring court papers is usually not a good idea, and especially not in Virginia where the judges don’t lose sleep over whether you understood what was happening.

(A lot of people call the lawyer for the creditor and ask, “Do I have to come to court?”  And usually the answer to that is no—you don’t have to come to court.  It’s just if you don’t come to court you plead guilty and they can start garnishing you in ten days.)

(The Virginia warrant in debt official form, also tells you that you don’t have to appear. So most people don’t. Which means most people just plead guilty.)

Most people who do show up for court, just plead guilty.

The judge says, “Do you owe this money?”

“Yes, but I can’t pay it right now.” Judge, “OK, you can discuss it with that lawyer after court.”

Do that, and you just pled guilty! The ONLY judge who cares about whether you can pay is a bankruptcy judge. Bankruptcy judges worry full time about whether people can pay, so the other judges don’t have to worry about it at all. And they don’t.

If you go to court on a warrant in debt, you should tell the judge you are not admitting you owe the money and you want a trial. Some judges will really crowd you to just plead guilty, but if you stand your ground they can’t make you.


If you show up for your first warrant in debt court date, don’t plead guilty and do ask for a trial, you’ll get a trial date a month or two later. At the trial you need to stop the creditor from proving that you owe the money. So you should use that month or two to talk to a lawyer, get ready to fight them yourself, or maybe try to work out a payment schedule.

(If you want to work out a payment schedule, you want to show up for court and ask for a trial. That gives the lawyer for the creditor the idea that you know a little about your rights—and so the lawyer has some reason to be fair to you.)

If you plan to fight them at the trial—with or without a lawyer—you need to first file your grounds of defense. Your grounds of defense are the reasons you think you don’t owe the money. At your first court date, the judge will give you a date for your grounds of defense. Miss that, and, you just pled guilty.

(Virginia’s system makes it easy to plead guilty to owing the money. Ignoring the first warrant in debt court date—you just pled guilty. Showing up and admitting you owe the money—you just pled guilty. Missing your grounds of defense deadline—oops, you just pled guilty. In other words, to fight a warrant in debt, you first have to show up in person; second, you have to ask for a trial; then third, you also have to answer in writing. You have to do all three.)

So, if you send in your grounds of defense, then you have the right to show up for trial and defend yourself.

The creditor’s lawyer probably appears in that court on hundreds or thousands of warrants in debt each year. You’re there for the first time. That gives you an idea your chances of winning without a lawyer are not all that good.

Still you have a better chance if you are being sued by a debt collector—somebody you never heard of like Asset Acceptance, NCO, CG Services, Cavalry Portfolio, or Midland—rather than being sued by the company you dealt with, like Ford Motor Credit, Bank of America or Fairfax Hospital. If you know how to object to their evidence and make them prove that they really own the debt, you have a chance of winning.

(Here’s a link to a short blog about a guy who did this and beat the warrant in debt from Midland.)

If this debt has bounced around from debt collector to debt collector, you might also win on the statute of limitations. The statute of limitations means if they left you alone for too long, they are too late. But they are only too late if you say so. Statute of limitations is an affirmative defense—meaning you have to show up and argue it; the judge won’t raise it for you. (And you’d have to put it in your grounds of defense.)

How long is the statute of limitations? It depends. The original creditor, especially a credit card company, probably will produce a notice they claim they sent you where you agree that the law of some state you’ve never been to controls the statute of limitations; and they picked that state because it has a long one.

A debt collector, however, may not have any kind of notice, so then you are protected by Virginia statute of limitations. How long is that? Maybe three years, maybe five. (Sorry I can’t be more specific than that.) It depends.


One way to get some leverage on your creditor is if they sue you with a warrant in debt in the wrong county. A debt collector—those guys like Asset Acceptance, NCO, CG Services, Cavalry Portfolio—they are required to sue you in the judicial where you live. (Or where you signed the contract; meaning where you financed the car, for example.) In Northern Virginia, each county and Alexandria City is a judicial district. (Except Loudoun and Fauquier share a district. And Stafford shares a district with Fredericksburg and Spottsylvania.)

An original creditor who uses a lawyer is bound by the same rules. The have to sue you in your home county.

If you get sued in the wrong county, that’s a violation of the Federal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act–known as the FDCPA. And you can sue them for violating your rights!


Capital One sues nearly everybody in Richmond. (Or the nearby counties of Henrico or Chesterfield.) They can get away with that, because they don’t use a lawyer. However, you don’t have to just give up. And you don’t have to leave Northern Virginia at 5:00 AM driving down I-95 to get to Richmond at 8:30, either. On the back of the warrant in debt, lower left, it explains that you have the right to object to venue. If you follow those instructions and say you can’t get to Richmond and ask the judge to please move it to your home county, the judge will nearly always do it.

Then Capital One will show up several weeks later in your home county, with a lawyer. And so you start from there.


OK. Suppose you showed up for your warrant in debt return date, asked for a trial, and filed your grounds of defense in writing. Now what?

You have some tough decisions. If the debt is something that you owe—and that you can afford to pay—you should pay it off. (No, they do not have to accept payment arrangements; by warrant in debt time you are way too late for that.)

If you don’t owe it—or are not sure—even before you go to court, ask for a trial, you should try to find a lawyer who will help with that kind of thing. (People who do that kind of work in Northern Virginia are Joelle Gotwals and Robert Brandt and Burke Walker.  In the Richmond area, Jason Krumbein. )

When you go to court on your first court day, and you tell the judge you want a trial, you should also ask for a “bill of particulars.” The bill of particulars is their writing proving that you do owe the money. That will give you some idea about how strong or weak their evidence is. If you get a lawyer to help you, he will really want to study their bill of particulars.

If you owe the money but can’t pay, then it’s probably time to talk to a bankruptcy lawyer.

Two million people will file bankruptcy nationally this year. Thirty thousand here in Virginia. Although the changes in the law in 2005 made bankruptcy more complicated, for most people bankruptcy still works.

I’m a bankruptcy lawyer and I’ve helped twelve thousand people get debt relief under the bankruptcy code. (I’m also designated a debt relief agency.)

If you get a warrant in debt for money you owe but can’t pay, I invite you to find out more about Virginia Bankruptcy Law here.

Hope this is helpful. Good luck.



I do bankruptcy law from my five offices in Northern Virginia.

Alexandria, VA 703-518-8811

Manassas, VA 703-335-7793

Stafford, VA 540-771-5582

Sterling, VA 703-421-7111

Woodbridge, VA 703-583-0330

PS Six hundred of people have filed bankruptcy with me in the past year. Half of them after they got a warrant in debt. Hundreds have written their comments for you here. Most people rate us five stars for quality and service, and say they recommend me to their friends.

Many people put off talking to a bankruptcy lawyer, because they think bankruptcy is some kind of punishment because you can’t pay your debts. That’s complete wrong.

The purpose of bankruptcy is to help you.

Bankruptcy offers a “new opportunity in life and a clear field for future effort.” That’s from the Supreme Court. What my clients tell me is two things. They get immediate relief, and long term happiness.

You don’t have to take my word for it. There was a survey of 184 people who filed bankruptcy with me about three years ago. You can click here to read all about it.

The survey backs up what my clients tell me in person For most, filing bankruptcy is one of the best decisions they ever made. And they are sorry they didn’t see me sooner.


Questions or Comments?  I’d like to hear from you.  Click on { comments } below to leave a comment or ask a question.



Bob Weed December 31, 2013 at 5:53 am


Wow good question. I have no idea–I don’t do business law, so I really don’t know what to tell you.

s simmons January 1, 2014 at 4:46 pm

I go to court tomorrow for my warrant in debt from Capital One/Dominion LawAssoc. I have consulted with your office in Stafford and I plan to file bankruptcy. But until I am able to get my funds needed, I will ask for a trial date and a bill of particulars. My questions are the following…1. I looked up court cases in Spotsylvania General District Court with Capital One and nearly all cases have garnishment or judgement. Is it posible the judge denies the bill of particulars or Capital One has already proved I am responsible for the debt without setting a trial date? And 2. I am pregnant(very high risk with my 2 previous pregnancies delivered at 27 weeks)with a due date in April. Tomorrow can ask for a continuance after my expected delivery date instead of the bill of particulars?

Bob Weed January 1, 2014 at 4:58 pm


Nearly all have garnishment or judgment because people don’t show up and ask for a trial. You need to show up and ask for a trial.

You have three answers and you give one of these three to ANY QUESTION you are asked.

1. Your honor I want a trial.

2. Your honor I want a bill of particulars.

3. I have a history of very high risk pregnancies. Can we get the trial set for May?

Not sure the judge will give you May, but this is AMERICA and you have your rights if you stand your ground.

T January 2, 2014 at 6:35 pm

Good evening,

I have 3 accounts with VA Credit Union a recreational loan, auto loan and line of credit. I am currently behind on all accunts I contacted VaCU to get a lower interest rate or temporary lower my payments on the accounts and was advised I needed to contact BALANCE a credit counseling agency that VaCU uses. I did and a proposal was sent to VaCU on 12/17/2013 VaCU has not responded to the proposal but today they drafted a payment for my recreational loan and the Line of Credit from my checking account and I recieved the Warrant in debt dated for 12/27/2013. I am aware that when I go to court I can dispute owing the amount reflected on the warrant since payments have been made but do I have any other legal grounds since they have not repsonded and payment are being made?

Bob Weed January 3, 2014 at 7:49 am


They are not required by any law I know of to agree to accept partial payments or agree to respond to what you worked out with BALANCE.

(Your date on your warrant in debt is past–I’m hoping that’s a typo.) Is Virginia Credit Union your only problem? If you are battling multiple debt problems, it may be time to talk to a bankruptcy lawyer. Bankruptcy is the ONE law that means they have to accept what you give them–there aren’t any others.

Susan January 4, 2014 at 4:21 pm

Can a warrant in debt be paid through the court prior to first court date or do you have to pay the individual?

Bob Weed January 5, 2014 at 6:31 am


The court does NOT want to handle the money. You need to pay the person. I also strongly recommend, unless you REALLY trust them, to show up on the court return date and make sure they SAY they’ve been paid. Just to avoid “mistakes.”

John January 9, 2014 at 9:52 pm


I happen to look at Fairfax County District court cases for myself and my wife. I found my wife had a Warrant in Debt that was never served to her. Now there is a Garnishment that supposedly served on 12/20/2013 to her and her employer. It is now Jan. 9 and no such paperwork is in her hand. Per Fairfax County court website the court date for garnishment is 04/09/2014.

Can we go on the date of garnishment and request original judgment be reopen as she was never served. The request a trial and a bill of particulars.

The Plantiff: CaptialOne and the Attorney: Dominion Law

TC January 14, 2014 at 4:24 pm

My wife (she was then my gf) was involved in a car accident in January 2011 and the other driver was found responsible. My wife was taken to the hospital and provided services to make sure she was okay. The guilty party’s insurance was suppose to pay her totaled vehicle and hospital expenses. They paid for her vehicle but not her full hospital bill because their client had maxed out on her insurance policy. My wife was not aware of this and she moved in with me that same year. On December 2013 she was informed by the person living at her previous address that she had received a warrant in debt from a law firm representing Inova Fairfax Hosipital stating that she owed 7,000. My wife was surprised because she was not aware that she owed anything to the hospital and she had updated her mailing address through USPS before moving out and never received a bill. Is there anyway she can fight this warrant in debt? She tried to call the hospital after she was made aware of the warrant to see if there was a way to pay them little by little but all they did was refer her to the law firm representing them.

Bob Weed January 14, 2014 at 4:44 pm


Obviously the hospital does NOT want to work with her. The only law that forces the other guy to work with you is the bankrutpcy law–that’s why I like it.

I don’t see anyway she can fight the amount–but she is supposed to get the papers where she is living now. It’s more than a little tricky to go to court and say, I didn’t get the papers because I don’t live there. That could buy you a little time if it works.

Bob Weed January 14, 2014 at 4:50 pm


You are definitely supposed to have that right. The court doesn’t have jurisdiction to have a judgment if she wasn’t actually served. Whether the judge will care about that is a little different question. Virginia isn’t always exactly America when it comes to due process.

Becky January 30, 2014 at 1:37 pm

I just received a warrant in debt for my husband, who is currently in prison. I’m not really sure what to do with it because he is not even in town. It is for a Best Buy credit card which he had attempted to pay (before we married). But every time he called to pay it off they told him he didn’t owe anything, he could never get through to anyone who could give him the information he needed. Then one day collections letters started showing up.

I don’t even know what to do with this…

Bob Weed January 30, 2014 at 2:08 pm


Need to know more. How old is it? Is it from Best Buy, or a debt buyer. When did he stop using the card? Can you testify that he called them and they said he didn’t owe anything? Do you know they told him that?

Becky January 30, 2014 at 4:14 pm

I don’t remember the name of the company off the top of my head, I received the information today from a lawyer located in Maryland representing this collections company. He made one purchase with the card in 2010, attempted to make the payments and has been incarcerated since late 2011.

He went into Best Buy and called there customer service multiple times to attempt to make payments. I was never with him, I just remember him talking about it in frustration at the time.

Bob Weed January 30, 2014 at 4:25 pm


You might want to show up in court. And first say, he does NOT live at that address, so they do NOT have proper service on him.

That SHOULD end it right there. IF they argue that you are his legal address, then you want to say that the debt is barred by the statute of limitations.

They are not supposed to allow a wife to represent somebody–supposed to be in person or a lawyer–but you can try. You can certainly say he does NOT live with you any more.

Good luck

Becky January 30, 2014 at 5:18 pm

Thank you. That is very helpful.

Judiesdream February 18, 2014 at 4:58 pm

My mom received a warrant in debt for a private second mortgage for a house that she is currently living in. She says that my husband and my name are listed as co-defendents; however, we no longer live at the residence (we live in another jurisdiction) and we were never served. My mom has chapter 13 bankruptcy protection, but we do not. We wanted to transfer everything in my mom’s name before moving, but the lender refused. What can we do? Court date is next week….

Bob Weed February 18, 2014 at 5:02 pm


If this is a second mortgage you have a LOT of money at stake. You need to talk to a lawyer and NOT try to fix this yourself with legal advice over the internet.

Probably Mom’s Chapter 13 may provide some limited protection for you, but you need to talk to a lawyer NOW!

Judiesdream February 19, 2014 at 2:58 pm

Thank you for your prompt reply. Another thing, we were also required to sign a extended contract every year because it was a balloon type loan. My mom and my husband signed the contracts. I never signed the extended contract. Would I be able to use this defense?

Judd February 19, 2014 at 5:30 pm

I received a warrant of debt today…. My question is about the interest…. Says 8% from february 1,2014. Would that be daily interest or a total of 8% added to the amount I owe????

Thank you.

Bob Weed February 19, 2014 at 5:32 pm


The interest is not one time–so dialy interest is what you could call it. If you don’t pay them for say seven years you’ll owe double what you owe now.

Earl Anderson February 26, 2014 at 3:11 pm

I just receives a warrant in debt from allen and allen. It does not state what I owe them for. What should I do?

Bob Weed March 10, 2014 at 11:12 am


Show up in court. Ask for a bill of particulars. That’s what I say on my blog.

keith April 21, 2014 at 5:38 pm

my wife was served a warrant in debt. my question is being va. is not a community property state, can they still garnish our bank account even though she doesnt work and the money is mine from working?

Bob Weed April 21, 2014 at 5:47 pm


I can tell you that under Virginia law money in the bank account of a married couple belongs to both. I can also predict the bank will pay over the whole amount to the garnishing court and leave you to come in and argue that half, or all, is yours.

Are we talking a lot of money here on this warrant in debt? Is there some reason she doesn’t want to file bankruptcy.

John May 21, 2014 at 2:04 pm

I received the warrant in debt today for medical bill. I want will to pay off the due amount of $600. Please let me know if I should call the CA or hospitals before the court date for the payment or is it must to attend the court even if I am ready to pay. Also please let me know if it will impact my credit history.
Thanks in advance.

Bob Weed May 22, 2014 at 7:40 am


Being behind on your medical bills is already affecting your credit. Getting a judgment would affect it more, so you don’t want that.

Obviously you want to arrange in advance to pay. HOWEVER you are always taking a small risk that even if you pay the attorney will not update his records and get a judgment against you anyway. So the risk is small but its safer to show up in court and make sure they are showing you as paid.

Sylvia bazemore June 10, 2014 at 1:51 pm

My nephew owes a credit card $4,000 got a warrant in debt he is disabled getting social security can they garnisher that

Bob Weed June 11, 2014 at 6:26 am


No, they can’t garnish social security. That’s been the law for a long time. Obama put in a new regulation to make sure the banks follow it.